Nature project: fourth fatal cancer of large intestine



Kill almost 700000 lives each year, Colorectal cancer (Colorectal cancer, CRC) has become the second only to lung cancer, lung cancer and stomach cancer, the world's fourth-largest most lethal cancer. Colorectal cancer is a kind of modern disease: in developed countries with the highest incidence of a disease. But as the world becomes richer, more and more people have turned to western diet and lifestyle, and may increase the incidence of colorectal cancer. 


The latest issue of Nature (May 14) to "Outlook: Colorectal cancer", in the form of nine article topic introduces the growth of Colorectal cancer disease, diagnosis, prevention, early screening, cutting-edge research progress, the relationship between treatment of drug development, and microbial groups and so on related content. 


Replace colonoscopies new diagnostic techniques 


Screening for colon cancer has become a routine examination in many parts of the world. Colonoscopy is usually one of the best methods to detect early signs of colon cancer, but it is traumatic. Some companies are currently working on a new type of micro innovation technology to replace the high invasive colonoscopy. 


In the middle of 2014, the us food and drug administration approved an called Cologuard test methods. The stool test combines a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and analysis of the genetic markers to detect special - KRAS mutations and the other two genes associated with the disease of chemical modification. KRAS is a kind of genes related to cell division, often occur in the gene mutation in colorectal cancer. In addition, the German Epigenomics company developed a blood test called Epi proColon method, to detect SEPT9 genes on a special kind of chemical markers. 


Encouraging the forefront of research 


In 2009, the Hubrecht institute of Hans Clevers and Toshiro Sato has developed a powerful new model of research development and disease: derived from adult stem cells in the 3 d "organ", copy it out some of the intestinal wall cell structure. Now the world has more than 100 laboratories in different types of organ to study cancer and other diseases. 


Clevers once again announced this month by tumor derived a batch of colorectal cancer in patients with organ, building the first class organ cancer biology bank, these "organ" culture is suitable for the large-scale drug screening to detect some genetic changes associated with drug sensitivity, to adopt individualized treatment paved the way to improve the cancer patients in clinical outcome. 


Another compelling study, at the Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel cancer biology joint director of the comprehensive cancer center oncologists Victor Velculescu, are being developed and improved measurement for fall off tumor DNA fragments in the bloodstream and sequencing technologies, he is trying to turn blood bottle into a "liquid biopsy, thus to identify the characteristics of the tumor and help monitor treatment effect. 


There is no breakthrough in drug development 


Though in the past ten years, some new drugs will be advanced colorectal cancer survival doubled on average, patients are often die within three years. Clinical front still plodded on. 


The contribution of microbial groups 


In more and more disease, scientists have found life in some organisms play a bigger role in our body. Abnormal microbiome is a cause or a result of colorectal cancer is still a mystery. It became a disease one of the several basic problems to be solved. 



Biological sense